On the basis of legends, myths and narratives, it is said
that Bhutan was already under the influence of Buddhism from India as early as the second century A.D. Hence, the doctrines of Lord Buddha reached the soil of Bhutan long before they reached Tibet. The growth of Buddhism in Bhutan was further advanced by the arrival of an Indian saint Guru Rimpoche in the eight century A.D.
根據傳說、神話和故事, 不丹早於公元二世紀時已從印度傳入佛教, 因此, 早在佛教傳入西藏之前, 佛陀的教法就來到不丹的國土了。印度的聖者蓮花生大士於公元八世紀來到不丹, 使不丹的佛教有進一步的發展。
Guru Rimpoche introduced in Bhutan the tantric Buddhism. He visited Bhutan four times – first from India and second, third and fourth from Tibet. He visited all parts of Bhutan and blessed and concealed various materials and symbolic scripts in many places of Bhutan.
蓮花生大士將密乘佛法傳到不丹, 他曾四次來到不丹傳法 ~
第一次從印度前來, 其後三次都是從西藏前來。蓮師在不丹各地雲遊, 給予加持, 並在境內多個地點埋下各種伏藏。
The source of Drukpa Kargyud Lineage
Drukpa Kargyud lineage was first founded in western Tibet by Tsangpa Gyere Yeshe Dorjee who was the student of Ling Repa, a great master of Tantric Buddhism practices of the Mahamudra. Tsangpa Gyere was born in 1161. The mahamudra teachings were taught by Buddha Sakyamuni manifesting in the form of Vajradhara. The lineage of Mahamudra teachings in India were passed from Tilopa to Naropa and was brought to Tibet by Marpa, the great translator. He, then, gave this teaching to Milarepa, the famous for having achieved Enlightenment in one life time through his Guru-devotion and intensive practices. From Milarepa, it is passed to Gampopa, author of "The Jewel Ornament of Liberation", and from him to several of his disciples, including Phagmodrupa Dorji Gyalpo. From Phagmodrupa, it is passed to Lingrepa Pema Dorji, who, in return, passed to Tsangpa Gyarey Yeshi Dorji and then through successive Gurus until the present day.
The Drukpa Kargyud lineage starts with the primordial Buddha Vajradhara who transmitted the teachings to Tantric yogi Tilopa. He taught and transmitted the teachings to his chief disciple Naropa who was a Kashmir scholar. Later, when it brought to Tibet by the great translator Marpa, the disciple of Naropa it was in 11th century. Marpa was succeeded by Milarepa, who was among Marpa's four great disciples known as 'the Four Great Pillars'. He travelled extensively all over Tibet and became an important figure for perpetuating Dharma. Gampopa, the doctor from Dagpo, was the next holder of the Kagyud lineage. He systematized the Kagyud teachings by combining the teachings of Atisa and Milarepa's Mahamudra teachings, in a unique manner, so that the two streams united. Gampopa spread his teachings to a large number of disciples, among whom the four great disciples founded the four major sub schools namely, the Phagdru, the Karma, the Tshelpa and Babrom. Thus, he became the initiative Guru of the four different sub-schools of Kagyud and also the eight minor sub-schools which came into being subsequently. These four major and eight minor sub-schools, acting like brothers in one family, greatly furthered the spread of the doctrines.
竹巴噶舉傳承始於本初佛金剛總持, 他將教法傳授給密乘瑜伽士帝洛巴。帝洛巴將教法傳給首座弟子, 來自克什米爾的學者那洛巴。那洛巴的弟子大譯師馬爾巴其後將教法傳入西藏,當時是十十世紀。馬爾巴的教法, 由號稱「四棟樑」的四位首座弟子之一密勒日巴繼承, 他在西藏到處雲遊, 成為弘揚佛法的重要人物。岡波巴是來自達波的醫生, 也是噶舉傳承的下一位持有者。他以獨特的方式, 將噶舉的教法整理,以阿底峽尊者的教法結合密勒日巴的大手印教法, 將兩者融會貫通, 並使之更有系統。岡波巴將教法傳給許多弟子, 其中包括四位偉大的弟子, 他們後來成了噶舉「四大八小」支派中四大派的祖師, 也就是帕竹噶舉、噶瑪噶舉、采巴噶舉與巴絨噶舉。因此岡波巴成了「四大」與後來「八小」的傳承祖師, 這四大與八小支派有如手足兄弟, 將佛法廣為弘傳。
After Gampopa's death, the lineage continued through his heart-son Phamodrupa Dorji Gyalpo,who, after completing both theory and realization aspects, founded a monastery at a place called Phamodru. Hence, the tradition of his teachings came to be known as Phagdru Kagyud. Phagmodrupa's successor was Lingrepa Pema Dorji, the most enlightened and senior disciple who founded Lingrey Kagyud. He founded a monastery at Naphu and attracted a vast assembly of disciples who accomplished both scholarly achievements and high levels of realization. Among all of his disciples, Tsangpa Gyarey Yeshi Dorji became the chief. Thus, Lingrepa became the Root-Guru of Drukpa founder Tsangpak Gyarey and the first patriarch of the Drukpa Kagyud school. As Tsangpa Gyarey was the founder of Drukpa kagyud lineage, it seems very important to describe briefly the life history of him.
岡波巴圓寂後, 傳承由他的心子帕莫竹巴多傑嘉波延續下去。完成了各種經論與修證後, 他在帕莫竹興建了一所寺院, 因此他的教法與傳承被稱為帕竹噶舉。帕莫竹巴的繼承人是寧千日巴多傑，他是最資深也具有最高證悟的弟子，創立了Lingrey Kagyud（即Drukpa）。他在Naphu建立了一所寺院，吸引了大量的弟子，這些弟子都是飽學之士，並且具有很高的證量，其中又以藏巴嘉日依昔多傑最為傑出。寧千日巴因此成了竹巴傳承的創始人藏巴嘉日的根本上師，同時也被尊為竹巴噶舉傳承的祖師。由於藏巴嘉日是竹巴噶舉傳承的創始人，因此有必要對他的生平作簡單的介紹。
His mother once had a dream in which she saw the sun rising from the body of her and meeting with highly realized beings from the moment he was conceived. She experienced many contemplative states unknown to her before. The environment was filled with peace, prosperity and happiness. After completing the normal period of time, he was born to father Gyazur So Tshape and mother Marzu Daryid, in the year of Iron-Female-Serpent (1161) at a place called Khule Sarel, in the upper Myang at the foot of Haogang. He was the last son born to the family.
Thus, all the lineage Gurus and Root-Gurus of Drukpa Kagyud tradition are adorned with all the good qualities and the emanation of the Buddhas. The life stories of these Gurus are not just history but an example which inspires one to follow the spiritual path trodden by them. From the above, we have come to know how the instructions were perpetuated and transmitted from one lineage member to the next, from guru to disciple, in an unbroken succession, maintaining the continuity of blessings and experiences.
Tsangpa Gyarey, the Drukpa founder
Even as a child, Tsangpa Gyarey was gentle and compassionate in temperament, without any trace of anger. He was very intelligent and was able to grasp easily whatever was taught to him. At the age of eleven he became a novice and thereafter he began his Buddhist studies of the exposition of the Abidharma, yoga tantra, Zhijed
(the cycle of teaching initiated in Tibet by Indian Mahasiddha Phadampa Sangay, the teacher of Machig Labdron) and other texts. He studied Bodhicaryavatara, Kadam teachings, the cycle of the great Perfection, the five collections of Madhyamika Reasoning and the Cycle of Avalokitesvara. Before he was just at the age of twenty two, he completed his studies of the exposition of the doctrine of the Great Perfection, Logic and the Secret Doctrine of the Mahakarunika. He was installed as a great scholar of both sutras and tantras.
Once, while he was going around for alms, he heard from one of his devotees that Drubthob Chenpo called Lingrepa was residing at Ralung. He then proceeded to Ralung, met the Lingrepa and held a long conversation with him. Having made pilgrimages to Lhasa and Samye, he proceeded to Naphu where the Lingrepa was residing. At Naphu, he received precepts from Lingrepa and developed profound faith in him. First, he was given the teachings of the Heat Yoga and after seven days he was able to wear the single cotton robe. Soon later he took to the Mahamudra meditation practice. He even worked harder day and night dissolving his mind in the meditative mahamudra state. His Guru was pleased with his hard work and further advised him to continue with the same. Once, Tsangpa Gyarey held a religious debate with Geshe Langdor and latter was not able to defeat him and thus he obtained the name of a wise man. Later, he went to Naphu to spend more years and he practised meditation and acquired the faculty of merging the 'outer' air and 'inner' breath, and could pass through a wall without any hindrance. He was victorious in the battle with defiling influences.
While he was meditating at a place called Chagphurchen he subdued hurdles-gods and demons who attacked him along with all evil forces and a clear-cut understanding was born in him. Thus, having spent three years at a place meditating he discovered the 'Ronyom' (the Equal Taste), the text of sacred meditative instruction concealed by Rechungpa, the disciple of Milarepa. Tsangpa Gyarey became a wandering ascetic, travelling even at the cost of his own life for the welfare of sentient beings. During his three-month meditation at Tsari Dongpokhar under the tree, he revealed the most esoteric pitch-instruction called 'Tendrel Rabdun' (the Seven Auspicious Teachings). Faith and devotion of people grew in him, for he had attained the greatest spiritual power and insight. His fame for high learning spread; small children could recognize him wherever he went. From the Lama Zhang, he requested a method of producing commiseration and later he was bestowed on him the initiation of a system producing sudden commiseration (Nyingje lo dog ma). At the age of thirty-three, he took up the final monastic ordination and received the religious name of Yeshi Dorji.
Tsangpa Gyarey was forty five years old when he was residing at Phaonkar in Ue region in Tibet. From this place, he could see the whole valley enveloped in a rainbow magnificently adorned with rays of light and the designs of Eight Auspicious Signs. This prompted him to assume that the place would be suitable for building a monastery. When he and his entourage proceeded to Namgyiphu to choose a suitable site, they saw nine dragons thundering in the sky while flowers miraculously rained down. At this, Tsangpa Gyarey commented that his teachings would be disseminated as far as the voice of the dragons reached. He took this as an auspicious omen and began building a monastery. When it was completed, Tsangpa Gyarey consecrated and gave the name 'Druk Sewa Jangchubling' (The Awakening place of the realized Dragons). Thenceforth, his monastery and followers (lineage) came to be known as the 'Druk' and 'Drukpa'.
Tsangpa Gyarey gathered disciples through the four great activities, and ripened their minds, and developed their precious qualities until they became like the full moon. In order to cultivate their prosperity, happiness and glorious insight, he emphasized meditation practice and retreat, and made them practise three things: first, to free their minds from worldly matters; secondly, to meditate on the sacrifice of their lives; and thirdly, to pay homage to one's guru. Tsangpa Gyarey himself, due to his spiritual attainment, became known as 'Druk Thamched Khyenpa' (the Omniscient Dragon), or the ' Drukchen' (the Great Dragon). And later all his incarnations were known as 'Gyalwang Drukpa' (the Dragon of Victorious Power).
Before passing away, Tsangpa Gyarey told his last will to his nephew Darma Sengay and promised to return to this world and continue serving the teaching and beings. The fourth Gyalwang Drukpa was Kuenkhyen Pema Karpo who was born in Kongpo region in Tibet as reincarnation of Tsangpa Gyarey. He was the most renowned and erudite of all the Gyalwang Drukpas. He was ordained at the age of seven and studied under the supervision and direction of peerless spiritual luminaries of the time and his wisdom blossomed immeasurably. He became a supreme authority of every school of Tibetan Buddhism, and was a gifted writer and polygraph. He wrote many philosophical expositions and meditation instructions of the Kagyud school, precisely that of the Drukpa school, numbering about twenty-four volumes which today form the archetypal Bhutanese and Tibetan Buddhism. And more significantly, his Hundred Thousand Precept volume became the religious encyclopedia of the Drukpa School.
He was the spiritual light of the Drukpa school, held in high esteem within and outside Tibet, irrespective of schools. He was widely known as 'Kuenkhyen' meaning 'All Knowing' or Omniscient.
Two years after the death of the fourth Gyalwang Drukpa, Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal was born and was recognized as the true incarnation of the fourth Gyalwang Drukpa in 1594. He succeeded his grand-father Mipham Choegyel, as the eighteenth prince-abbot of Ralung monastery at the age of thirteen. Another reincarnation of Gyalwang Drukpa was claimed backed by his family and supporters and was named as Pagsam Wangpo. He was enthroned as the fifth Gyalwang Drukpa after Shabdrung Rimpoche left Ralung for Bhutan as Shabdrung Rimpoche was prophesied by a Buddha and Guru Rimpoche. In the first chapter of the sutra of Goenpo Ngoedrub Jungwa,
the Buddha stated, 'There will appear Vajra Acharya equal to Vajrasattva, who would be the Conqueror of demons of samsara'. Similarly, Guru Rimpoche also stated, "There will appear a man called Dujom Dorji, the lord of Mystical teachings".
第四世嘉旺竹巴法王圓寂後兩年，薩仲納旺南嘉於1594年出生，被認證第第四世嘉旺竹巴法王的真實轉世。十三歲時，繼承祖父米滂索甲，成為惹龍寺第十八任住持。嘉旺竹巴法王的另一位轉世名帕桑旺波，由他的家人與支持者帶回，昇座成為第五世嘉旺竹巴法王。按照佛陀與蓮師的授記，薩仲仁波切則離開惹龍，前往不丹。在Goenpo Ngoedrub Jungwa的第一章內，佛陀授記：「將出現一位等同金剛薩埵的金剛阿闍黎，是輪迴惡魔的降伏者。」同樣，蓮師亦曾授記：「將有一人名頓珠多傑降生，是秘密教法之主。」
Shabdrung Rimpoche's mother had a dream in which the nine-pointed golden Vajra entered her body when he was conceived in her womb. From that moment onwards she experienced many blissful states, unknown to her before. He was protected day and night by Mahakala Yeshi Goenpo and Mahakali Pelden Lhamo both after birth and while in womb. Immediately after birth, he was said to have uttered sacred mantras, signifying an extraordinary baby. Even at the age of eight, he could recite the tantric text of Dakini Vajrapanjara by heart and could give its explanation to a large gathering of monks, who were overwhelmed with surprise. From his tutor Khedrub Lhawang Lodroe, he studied astrology, art of painting, sculpting, sutras and tantras. From his teacher Pekar Wangpo and Sakya Dagchen Sonam Wangpo, he studied logic, medicine and many quintessential instructions on tantra practices. To integrate whatever he studied, within his mind, he would remain for days and nights together meditating in the space of bliss, clarity and non-conceptualization, even refusing to partake of food. By the time he attained nineteen years of age, his studies covered all branches of learning and he became the most skilled and acknowledged scholar-saint, showing many signs of spiritual accomplishment.
At the age of twenty three, Shabdrung Rimpoche accepted the invitation of Obtsho Lama of Bhutan, one of the peerless disciples of Tsangpa Gyarey, came to Bhutan in 1616.
Like other schools of the Kagyud tradition, the Drukpa lineage also takes up the Six Yogas or Doctrines of Naropa and the Mahamudra or the Great Seal teachings of Mahasiddha Maitripa as the main meditative course. Mahamudra teachings is a direct path to insight into the luminous nature of the mind- a total naturalness of mind comprised of clarity and relaxed equilibrium. Supplementing the above teachings, the Drukpa school has the unique and distinct meditative teachings renowned as the 'Six Equal-Taste', the six teachings on experiencing the single taste of all phenomena. These teachings are considered as the most sacred teachings which were initially taught by Naropa to Tibu, the son of Pandita Gayadhara and then to Rechungpa, the disciple of Milarepa. Rechungpa brought it from India to Tibet and concealed as a treasure for the benefit of future generations. Tsangpa Gyarey after meditating for three years revealed this treasure of esoteric teachings.
The other Drukpa meditative teaching is called 'the Seven Auspicious Teachings'. This is also an esoteric pith-instruction which was revealed to Tsangpa Gyarey by seven Buddhas appearing before him in real forms, after his three-month strict meditation under the tree at Tsari. These teachings have been passed from Gurus to disciples till today. Before embarking upon the practice of any of the above mentioned teachings, one must be trained first with the 'Preliminary Practices' which provides the context for one's spiritual path as well as the conducive circumstances for one's success in travelling the path towards enlightenment. Preliminary practice means basic meditation with the view on the transiency of life, on the suffering of Samsara, on the difficulty of obtaining a favourable birth of human life, on resolute renunciation of this life, on kindness and compassion towards all sentient beings and the infinite Bodhi-mind – that great view and vow to bring all sentient beings to the state of Buddhahood. Only through these practices can the foundation of Dharma be built.
The Drukpa Kargyud Lineage in Bhutan
Bhutan was visited first by Guru Rimpoche and later many Kagyud teachers as well from Tibet. The first Kagyud who visited Bhutan was Ngoton Choeku Dorji (1036-1102), one of the disciples of Marpa. He built a temple called Langmalung in Bumthang, Bhutan, which is standing till today. Marpa's another chief disciple, Milarepa, also visited Bhutan and meditated three month long at Taksang monastery, one of the most sacred place in Bhutan which is first visited by Guru Rimpoche, located in the paro Valley. We have learned that Tsangpa Gyarey, the founder of Drukpa Kagyud lineage, had himself dispatched his disciples to various Himalayan regions to disseminate the Drukpa teachings. It is said that later two Drukpa teachers visited Bhutan sent by Tsangpa Gyarey and built a temple in the north of Bhutan. It was one of these two teacher's descendant called Lama Obtshopa who first invited Shabdrung Rimpoche to Bhutan.
Although numerous scholar-sages of different traditions of Tibetan Buddhism appeared in Bhutan, no one had ever established a monk community or Sangha until Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal came to Bhutan. He was the first personality to institute the monk community in Bhutan, which continues to be the main religious body in the country even to this day. He established ever first Sangha community at Chari monastery above valley of Thimphu in 1621-1622 with thirty monks. Regular teachings were imparted to the monks mainly by Shabdrung Rimpoche himself, besides his tutor Lhawang Lodroe, thereby setting in motion, for the first time, the wheel of teachings of the Drukpa Kagyud in Bhutan. He appointed abbot of the monastery, Precentor, Prefect and Treasurer. The monks were abided by the religious curriculum of the Chari monastery and the strict code of conduct was established. Although Tibetan Buddhism was originated from Mahayana Buddhism, Bhutanese Buddhism differs from Tibetan Buddhism significantly in its rituals, liturgy and monastic organization by the invention of Shabdrung Rimpoche.
With the passing of time, the number of monks increased and reached more than hundred by 1627. On completion of the Punakha Dzong in 1637, the monk community was transferred there from Chari monastery. Therefore, Punakha Dzong became the winter residence for monks and the summer residence was built in Thimphu four years later in 1641. After the monastic institution became fully operational with its proper monastic building, a set of curriculum and rules and regulations, Shabdrung Rimpoche decided to enter into meditation of a three year retreat in 1623 in a cave just above the main Chari monastery. He practised meditation day and night, without idling away even a moment, and have fully actualized the direct realization of Mahamudra, and his mind became inseparable from the Vajradhara state.
A grand ceremony was performed marking the end of his three year retreat at Chari monastery and many followers from within Bhutan, as well as outside, with numerous offerings, flocked to receive blessings from him. Even after his three year retreat was over, a thought came to his mind again that he should continue to lead a secluded life of meditation. He had a vision of his late father Tenpai Nyima and instructed him to take up temporal responsibilities in order to benefit the people of Bhutan in particular, and sentient beings in general. Even the protective deities, Yeshi Goenpo (Mahakala) and Pelden Lhamo (Mahakali) are said to have appeared in his vision and reminded him of the same prophecy. He consulted his tutor Lhawang Lodroe concerning these matters and he instructed Shabdrung Rimpoche to do meditation practice of tutelary deity Vajrabhairava. He meditated at the same cave and fully accomplished it.
Thereafter, according to the prophecies, Shabdrung Rimpoche began to carry out the work of unifying the Bhutan, both spiritually and secularly. As requested by his tutor and his followers, Shabdrung Rimpoche conducted empowerment, oral transmission and initiation of the Drukpa Kagyud tradition to large number of followers from all over Bhutan. Many came forward and got themselves enrolled in the monkhood increasing the number of monks. The history of Bhutan reached a turning point with arrival of Shabdrung Rimpoche and after his arrival in Bhutan, he started the process of unification of the country. He brought peace, security and stability to the Bhutan. He, being as a religious personality, have been dedicated to the cause of spreading the teachings of Buddha and Drukpa in particular. Realizing the need for a distinct cultural identity for Bhutan, the Shabdrung Rimpoche also developed distinct Bhutanese characteristics in the Drukpa religious ceremonies and rituals which could be said a bigger difference than those Tibetan monks practice in Tibet.
The final result of Shabdrung Rimpoche's dynamic leadership was that the people established in the righteous path of Buddhist teaching and the entire country was transformed into the land of Buddhism. He made Bhutan a sovereign country known as 'Drukyul' (land of the Dragon), with a rich religious and cultural heritage and a unique national identity. The aphorism 'Pelden Drukpa Chogley Namgyal' (the Glorious Drukpa, Victorious in all directions), became famous and familiar all over Bhutan.
At present, the central monk body within Bhutan is the Drukpa tradition and discipline, a major sect of Vajrayana Buddhism and is headed by the Je Khenpo (Chief Lord of Bhutan) who is chosen from among the most learned lamas. Just as the Himalayan Mountains dominate Bhutan, so is Drukpa Kagyud lies at the heart of this kingdom. Bhutan is the only country in the world where Mahayana Buddhism is the official religion and Drukyul is therefore hailed as the stronghold of Mahayana Buddhism.